Saturday, December 26, 2009

Sweet Memories of QA1-2009 INTAN BUKIT KIARA



As regards the three types of identity, it is hoped that the ‘forced identity’ might turn into a ‘natural identity’ in which such situation as housing might be approached from its socio-cultural and climatic aspect. Although research in housing continues to be done, very little can be done if there exist no political will among the people and the leadership in Malaysia to affect change.

As regards the manufactured identity, it will always be with us so long as there are politics and political symbolism. It is hoped, however that future architects would be more discerning in their approach. There is a potential for the growth of machine regionalism for such development as housing and commercial complexes as it is a rational approach. This approach, however, might be limited if an architect is engaged in a highly charged symbolic monument. The approach of primitive regionalism represents a hope for sustainable development if it can solve what critics refer to as high density development. However, these critics should also be aware of Alvin Tofler’s prediction of the death of high density commercial and office complexes with the development of the electronic cottage industry where on-line business transaction would shift the business center back to the home. As regards to revivalism, we should shift far away from straight revivalism and experiment with either the Hassan Fathi’s solution of it or adapt the language of historical precedence into a new and dynamic dialogue. The use of metaphors must be weighted concerning its motifs and indirect suggestive qualities. Of all the approaches, the modernistic expressionism of buildings has the greatest potential of creating new and meaningful architectural interpretation and messages.

With all the experiments and approaches done by local architects, Malaysia was poised to make a quantum leapt into the future when a big question mark loomed in the form of the Prime Minister’s Department and Residence of Putrajaya. Several serious questions are raised by these highly charged monuments. The first question concerns the idea of an obvious and direct ethnic reference in its Malay-Muslim vocabulary. The second question concerns the problem of a democratic country presented with the syntax of a totalitarian vocabulary of palatial monumentality, lavishness, strong symmetry and strict compositional hierarchy. The third question raised is the total absence of an attempt to produce any gesture towards tropical architecture. These two buildings including the Putra Mosque fall under a new category of Foreign Eclecticism. Though eclecticism is a valid architectural approach, the big question is why resort to it when we have a few successes in all the five approaches mentioned. Where do we go from here? It is fortunate that the Kuala Lumpur International Airport designed by Kisho Kurukawa came into the scene and set forth the future path of modernistic expressionism. The new airport is laden with metaphors of our cultural heritage although it did not tackle much some of the regionalistic issues raised in the present time. Nevertheless, the form is new and dynamic and certainly does not call on any specific ethnic or religious reference. The euphoria over the possession of the tallest building in the world would never alter the simple truth that architecture in Malaysia is still in its infancy when it comes to grapple with an intellectual discourse on the acceptable approach in producing a national architectural identity.

Friday, December 04, 2009

The Twilight Saga: by Stephenie Meyer

Yeahhh... today i got the complete of The Twilight Saga : twilight, new moon, eclipse and breaking dawn by the great author Stephenie Meyer.

"The main draw here is Bella's infatuation with outsider Edward, the sense of danger inherent in their love, and Edward's inner struggle—a perfect metaphor for the sexual tension that accompanies adolescence. These will be familiar to nearly every teen, and will keep readers madly flipping the pages of Meyer's tantalizing debut."

Tuesday, November 24, 2009

Tuesday, June 30, 2009

Louis Henri Sullivan

Louis Sullivan was born to an Irish-born father and a Swiss-born mother, both of whom had emigrated to the United States in the late 1840s. He grew up living with his grandmother in South Reading (now Wakefield), Massachusetts. Louis spent most of his childhood learning about nature while on his grandparent’s farm. In the later years of his primary education, his experiences varied quite a bit. He would spend a lot of time by himself wandering around Boston. He explored every street looking at the surrounding buildings. This was around the time when he developed his fascination with buildings and he decided he would one day become a structural engineer/architect. While attending high school Sullivan met Moses Woolson, whose teachings made a lasting impression on him, and nurtured him until his death. After graduating from high school, Sullivan studied architecture briefly at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Learning that he could both graduate from high school a year early and pass up the first two years at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology by passing a series of examinations, Sullivan entered MIT at the age of sixteen. After one year of study, he moved to Philadelphia and talked himself into a job with architect Frank Furness.

The Depression of 1873 dried up much of Furness’s work, and he was forced to let Sullivan go. At that point Sullivan moved on to Chicago in 1873 to take part in the building boom following the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. He worked for William LeBaron Jenney, the architect often credited with erecting the first steel-frame building. After less than a year with Jenney, Sullivan moved to Paris and studied at the École des Beaux-Arts for a year. Renaissance art inspired Sullivan’s mind, and he was influenced to direct his architecture to emulating Michelangelo's spirit of creation rather than replicating the styles of earlier periods. He returned to Chicago and began work for the firm of Joseph S. Johnston & John Edelman as a draftsman. Johnston & Edleman were commissioned for interior design of the Moody Tabernacle, which was completed by Sullivan.[2] In 1879 Dankmar Adler hired Sullivan; a year later, he became a partner in the firm. This marked the beginning of Sullivan's most productive years. And it was at this firm that Sullivan would deeply influence a young designer named Frank Lloyd Wright, who came to embrace Sullivan's designs and principles as the inspiration for his own work.

Adler and Sullivan initially achieved fame as theater architects. While most of their theaters were in Chicago, their fame won commissions as far west as Pueblo, Colorado, and Seattle, Washington (unbuilt). The culminating project of this phase of the firm's history was the 1889 Auditorium Building in Chicago, an extraordinary mixed-use building which included not only a 3000-seat theater, but also a hotel and office building. Adler and Sullivan reserved the top floor of the tower for their own office. After 1889 the firm became known for their office buildings, particularly the 1891 Wainwright Building in St. Louis and the 1899 Carson Pirie Scott Department Store on State Street in Chicago, Louis Sullivan is considered by many to be the first architect to fully imagine and realize a rich architectural vocabulary for a revolutionary new kind of building: the steel high-rise.

Sullivan and the steel high-rise

Prior to the late 19th century, the weight of a multistory building had to be supported principally by the strength of its walls. The taller the building, the more strain this placed on the lower sections of the building; since there were clear engineering limits to the weight such "load-bearing" walls could sustain, large designs meant massively thick walls on the ground floors, and definite limits on the building's height.

The development of cheap, versatile steel in the second half of the 19th century changed those rules. America was in the midst of rapid social and economic growth that made for great opportunities in architectural design. A much more urbanized society was forming and the society called out for new, larger buildings. The mass production of steel was the main driving force behind the ability to build skyscrapers during the mid 1880s. As seen with the data below the prices dropped significantly during this period.

Price of Steel at Bessemer Steel Rails from 1867-1895 ($/ton)

1867- $166; 1870- $107; 1875- $69; 1880- $68; 1885- $29; 1890- $32; 1895- $32

The people in Midwestern America felt less social pressure to conform to the ways and styles of the architectural past. By assembling a framework of steel girders, architects and builders could suddenly create tall, slender buildings with a strong and relatively delicate steel skeleton. The rest of the building's elements - the walls, floors, ceilings, and windows - were suspended from the steel, which carried the weight. This new way of constructing buildings, so-called "column-frame" construction, pushed them up rather than out. The steel weight-bearing frame allowed not just taller buildings, but permitted much larger windows, which meant more daylight reaching interior spaces. Interior walls became thinner, which created more usable floor space.

Chicago's Monadnock Building (which was not designed by Sullivan) literally straddles this remarkable moment of transition: the northern half of the building, finished in 1891, is of load-bearing construction, while the southern half, finished only two years later, is column-frame. (While experiments in this new technology were taking place in many cities, Chicago was the crucial laboratory. Industrial capital and civic pride drove a surge of new construction throughout the city's downtown in the wake of the 1871 fire.)

The technical limits of weight-bearing masonry had always imposed formal as well as structural constraints; those constraints were suddenly gone. None of the historical precedents were any help, and this new freedom created a kind of technical and stylistic crisis.

Sullivan was the first to cope with that crisis. He addressed it by embracing the changes that came with the steel frame, creating a grammar of form for the high rise (base, shaft, and pediment), simplifying the appearance of the building by breaking away from historical styles, using his own intricate flora designs, in vertical bands, to draw the eye upwards and emphasize the building's verticality, and relating the shape of the building to its specific purpose. All this was revolutionary, appealingly honest, and commercially successful.

Louis Sullivan coined the phrase "form ever follows function," which, shortened to "form follows function," would become the great battle-cry of modernist architects. This credo, which placed the demands of practical use above aesthetics, would later be taken by influential designers to imply that decorative elements, which architects call "ornament," were superfluous in modern buildings. But Sullivan himself neither thought nor designed along such dogmatic lines during the peak of his career. Indeed, while his buildings could be spare and crisp in their principal masses, he often punctuated their plain surfaces with eruptions of lush Art Nouveau and something like Celtic Revival decorations, usually cast in iron or terra cotta, and ranging from organic forms like vines and ivy, to more geometric designs, and interlace, inspired by his Irish design heritage. Terra cotta is lighter and easier to work with than stone masonry. Sullivan used it in his architecture because it had a malleability that was appropriate for his ornament. Probably the most famous example is the writhing green ironwork that covers the entrance canopies of the Carson Pirie Scott store on South State Street. These ornaments, often executed by the talented younger draftsman in Sullivan's employ, would eventually become Sullivan's trademark; to students of architecture, they are his instantly-recognizable signature.

Another signature element of Sullivan's work is the massive, semi-circular arch. Sullivan employed such arches throughout his career - in shaping entrances, in framing windows, or as interior design.

All of these elements can be found in Sullivan's widely-admired Guaranty Building, which he designed while partnered with Adler. Completed in 1895, this office building in Buffalo, New York was visibly divided into three "zones" of design: a plain, wide-windowed base for the ground-level shops; the main office block, with vertical ribbons of masonry rising unimpeded across nine upper floors to emphasize the building's height; and an ornamented cornice perforated by round windows at the roof level, where the building's mechanical units (like the elevator motors) were housed. The cornice crawls with Sullivan's trademark Art Nouveau vines; each ground-floor entrance is topped by a semi-circular arch.

Because of Sullivan's remarkable accomplishments in design and construction at such a critical point in architectural history, he has sometimes been described as the "father" of the American skyscraper. In truth, many architects had been building skyscrapers before or simultaneously with Sullivan. Chicago itself was replete with extraordinary designers and builders in the late years of the 19th century, including Sullivan's partner Dankmar Adler, as well as Daniel Burnham, and John Wellborn Root. Root was one of the builders of the Monadnock Building (see above). That and another Root design, the Masonic Temple Tower (both in Chicago), are cited by many as the originators of skyscraper aesthetics of bearing wall and column-frame construction respectively.

It may be that Sullivan's prominence in skyscraper history can be credited not only to his brilliance, but in some degree to the myth-making skills of his disciple, Frank Lloyd Wright, and to the impact of Sullivan's own book, The Autobiography of an Idea. He may also owe some of his legend to the tragic tint of his later years, which lend this great innovator's story a poignancy which has captured the imagination of student and historian alike.

Later career and decline

In 1890 Sullivan was one of the ten architects, five from the Eastern U.S. and five from the Western U.S., chosen to build a major structure for the "White City", the World's Columbian Exposition, held in Chicago in 1893. Sullivan's massive Transportation Building and huge arched "Golden Door" stood out as the only forward-looking design in a sea of Beaux-Arts historical copies, and the only gorgeously multicolored facade in the White City. Sullivan and fair director Daniel Burnham were vocal about their displeasure with each other. Sullivan was later (1922) to claim that the fair set the course of American architecture back "for half a century from its date, if not longer." (Autobiography of an Idea, p. 325) His was the only building to receive extensive recognition outside America, receiving three medals from the Union Centrale des Arts Decoratifs the following year.

Like all American architects, Adler and Sullivan saw a precipitous decline in their practice with the onset of the Panic of 1893. According to Charles Bebb, who was working in the office at that time, Adler borrowed money to try to keep employees on the payroll.[3] By 1894, however, in the face of continuing financial distress with no relief in sight, Adler and Sullivan dissolved their partnership. The Guaranty Building was considered the last major project of the firm.

By both temperament and connections, Adler had always been the one who brought in new business to the partnership, and after the rupture Sullivan received few large commissions after the Carson Pirie Scott Department Store. He went into a twenty-year-long financial and emotional decline, beset by a shortage of commissions, chronic financial problems and alcoholism. He obtained a few commissions for small-town Midwestern banks (see below), wrote books, and in 1922 appeared as a critic of Raymond Hood's winning entry for the Tribune Tower competition, a steel-frame tower dressed in Gothic stonework that Sullivan found a shameful piece of historicism. He and his former understudy Frank Lloyd Wright reconciled in time for Wright to help fund Sullivan's funeral after he died, poor and alone, in a Chicago hotel room on April 14, 1924. He left a wife and four children. A modest headstone marks his final resting spot in Graceland Cemetery in Chicago's Uptown neighborhood. Only yards away from his resting-place, some of Chicago's lesser-known but much wealthier dead are entombed in handsome and distinctive tombs designed by Sullivan himself. A monument (shown) was later erected in Sullivan's honor, a few feet from his headstone.

Sullivan's legacy is contradictory. Some consider him the first modernist. His forward-looking designs clearly anticipate some issues and solutions of Modernism. However, his embrace of ornament makes his contribution distinct from the Modern Movement that coalesced in the 1920s and became known as the "International Style." To experience Sullivan's built work is to experience the irresistible appeal of his incredible designs, the vertical bands on the Wainwright Building, the burst of welcoming Art Nouveau ironwork on the corner entrance of the Carson Pirie Scott store, the (lost) terra cotta griffins and porthole windows on the Union Trust building, the white angels of the Bayard Building. Except for some designs by his long time draftsman George Grant Elmslie, and the occasional tribute to Sullivan such as Schmidt, Garden & Martin's First National Bank in Pueblo, Colorado (built across the street from Adler and Sullivan's Pueblo Opera House), his style is unique. A visit to the preserved Chicago Stock Exchange trading floor, now at The Art Institute of Chicago, is proof of the immediate and visceral power of the ornament that he used so selectively. Original drawings and other archival materials from Sullivan are held by the Ryerson & Burnham Libraries in the Art Institute of Chicago and by the Drawings and Archives Department in the Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library at Columbia University. Fragments of Sullivan buildings are also held in many fine art and design museums around the world.


During the postwar era of urban renewal, Sullivan's works fell into disfavor, and many were demolished. In the 70's growing public concern for these buildings finally resulted in many being saved. The most vocal voice was Richard Nickel, who even held one-man protests of demolitions. Nickel and others sometimes rescued decorative elements from condemned buildings, sneaking in during demolition. This practice led to Nickel's death inside Sullivan's Stock Exchange building, when a floor above him collapsed.

Buildings through 1895 are by Adler & Sullivan.

Martin Ryerson Tomb, Graceland Cemetery, Chicago (1887)
Auditorium Building, Chicago (1889)
Carrie Eliza Getty Tomb, Graceland Cemetery, Chicago (1890)
Wainwright Building, St. Louis (1890)
Charlotte Dickson Wainwright Tomb, Bellefontaine Cemetery, St. Louis (1892)
Wainwright TombUnion Trust Building (now 705 Olive), St. Louis (1893; street-level ornament heavily altered 1924)
Guaranty Building (formerly Prudential Building), Buffalo (1894)
Bayard Building, (now Bayard-Condict Building), 65–69 Bleecker Street, New York City (1898). Sullivan's only building in New York, with a glazed terra cotta curtain wall expressing the steel structure behind it.
Carson Pirie Scott store, Chicago (1899)
Van Allen Building, Clinton, Iowa (1914)
St Paul's Methodist Church, Cedar Rapids, Iowa
Krause Music Store, Chicago (final commission 1922)

Friday, June 26, 2009

Michael Joseph Jackson....August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009

Satu dunia hari dikejutkan dengan kematian Raja Pop Micheal Jackson. Lagenda ini akan terus diingati sampai bila bila.

Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009 was an American recording artist and entertainer. The seventh child of the Jackson family, he debuted on the professional music scene at the age of 11 as a member of The Jackson 5and began a solo career in 1971 while still a member of the group. Referred to as the "King of Pop" in subsequent years, four of his solo studio albums are among the world's best-selling records: Off the Wall (1979), Bad (1987), Dangerous (1991) and HIStory (1995), while his 1982 Thriller is the world's best-selling record of all time.

In the early 1980s, he became a dominant figure in popular music and the first African-American entertainer to amass a strong crossover following on MTV. The popularity of his music videos airing on MTV, such as "Beat It", "Billie Jean" and Thriller—credited for transforming the music video into an art form and a promotional tool—helped bring the relatively new channel to fame. Videos such as "Black or White" and "Scream" made Jackson an enduring staple on MTV in the 1990s. With stage performances and music videos, Jackson popularized a number of physically complicated dance techniques, such as the robot and the moonwalk. His distinctive musical sound and vocal style influenced many hip hop, pop and contemporary R&B artists.

One of the few artists to have been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame twice, his other achievements include multiple Guinness World Records—including one for "Most Successful Entertainer of All Time"—13 Grammy Awards, 13 number one singles in his solo career—more than any other male artist in the Hot 100 era. Jackson's highly publicized personal life, coupled with his successful career, made him a part of popular culture for almost four decades. Michael Jackson died of a suspected cardiac arrest or heart attack, although the cause of dead is still unknown, on June 25, 2009, aged 50.

Tuesday, June 23, 2009

Influenza A (H1N1) Virus

Artikel kali ini yang hendak di tulis adalah berkaitan dengan jangkitan selsema babi atau Influenza A (H1N1) yang telah merebak hingga ke serata dunia dengan cepatnya.

Terbaru apa yang kita telah dengar dan baca di surat khabar dimana beberapa sekolah di negera kita juga telah ditutup akibat wabak penyakit ini. Merebaknya wabak penyakit ini masih berterusan dan tiada vaksin lagi yang boleh memberi jawapan kepada virus ini.

Bila aku melihat berita-berita yang dipaparkan di dada surat khabar aku mula terkenangkan sebuah filem yang telah di tayangkan pada tahun 2007. Aku rasa semua orang pun tahu tentang cerita ini iaitu "I Am Legend".

I Am Legend

Jika anda semua teliti balik sewaktu ditayangkan cerita ini pada tahun 2007, cerita ini yang dibintangi oleh Will Smith ini adalah berkisarkan pada tahun 2009 dan wabak penyakit itu berkahir pada 2012. Jadi persoalannya adalah adakah cerita ini atau orang orang barat memang sudah mengetahui akan terjadinya wabak seperti ini akan berlaku? ermmmmmm. pikir pikirkan. Sebab sebelum ini juga banyak filem seperti WTC pernah di tayangkan dan akhirnya malapetaka itu benar-benar belaku. Untuk mengingati semula sipnopsis filem I Am Legend ini anda semua boleh la baca di bawah ini semula.


The film is set in 2009-2012. It opens in the fall of 2009 with a television news broadcast featuring Doctor Alice Krippin (Emma Thompson), who claims that she has created a cure for cancer with a 100% success rate. Dr. Krippin says that the cure was created by altering the measles virus.

In September 2012, U.S. Army virologist, Lieutenant Colonel Robert Neville (Will Smith) is left as the last healthy human in New York City and possibly the entire world. A series of flashbacks and recorded news broadcasts reveal that the genetically re-engineered measles virus (referred to as K.V. or Krippin virus) mutated into a lethal airborne strain that spread worldwide and killed 5.4 billion people, (90% of humanity). Of the 600 million survivors, only 12 million people possessed a natural immunity to the virus. The rest degenerated into primal, aggressive beings referred to as "Darkseekers" (the DVD subtitles refer to them as hemocytes), who have a painful intolerance to UV radiation. This forces them to hide in buildings and dark places during the day. The "Darkseekers" exhibit increased speed, agility, and strength. Despite their primal behaviour, the Darkseekers seem to retain some basic problem-solving intelligence, animalistic cunning and the capacity to organise themselves. The remaining immune humans were killed by the infected. Flashbacks reveal that his wife Zoe (Salli Richardson) and daughter Marley (Willow Smith) died in a helicopter accident during the chaotic evacuation of Manhattan, prior to the military-enforced quarantine of the island in December 2009.

Neville's daily routine includes experimentation on captive rats to find a cure for the virus, and trips through an empty Manhattan to collect supplies from abandoned homes. He also waits each day for a response to his continuous recorded AM radio broadcasts, which instruct any uninfected survivors to meet him at noon at the South Street Seaport. Neville's isolation is broken only by the companionship of his German Shepherd dog Samantha ("Sam"), interaction with mannequins he has set up as patrons of a video store, and recordings of old television broadcasts.

When one of his experiments on rats shows a promising treatment, Neville sets a snare trap and captures an infected woman. Back in his laboratory, located in the basement of his heavily fortified Washington Square Park home, Neville attempts to treat the infected woman, without success. Later, after finding one of his mannequins in front of Grand Central Station, he is himself caught in a trap and passes out. When Neville finally gets free, it is dusk, and he is attacked by a pack of infected dogs. Although Neville and Sam manage to kill the dogs, one of the infected dogs bites Sam (although dogs are unaffected by the airborne strain of the Krippin virus, they are still affected by the contact strain). Neville takes the wounded Sam back to his lab and attempted to cure her with the experimental treatment. However, he is forced to kill her.

Later that night, after burying Sam in a cornfield, and overcome by grief and rage, he attacks a group of the infected. Despite killing a large number of Darkseekers, the infected overwhelm Neville and nearly kill him, but he is rescued by a pair of immune survivors, Anna (Alice Braga) and a young boy named Ethan (Charlie Tahan), who have heard his AM broadcasts. They take the injured Neville back to his home, where Anna explains that they are making their way to a putative survivors' camp in Bethel, Vermont. When Anna claims that their meeting wasn't coincidence, but part of God's plan, Neville argues that in the wake of devastation left by the Krippin virus, there can be no God.

Suddenly, the Alpha Male leads a group of infected in an attack on the house, having followed Anna and Neville back the night before. The Darkseekers force Neville, Anna, and Ethan to retreat into the basement laboratory. They seal themselves in a room with the infected woman, where they discover that Neville's treatment is working: the subject has reverted to a human form. The infected are managing to break through the acrylic glass seperating them, at which point Neville remembers his daughter mentioning a butterfly the night she died, and her voice rings through his mind. Neville knows now what he must do. Neville takes a sample of the infected female's blood and gives a vial of it to Anna. He pushes Anna and Ethan into an old coal chute and shuts them inside. He then sacrifices himself to save their lives, using an M67 hand grenade to kill the infected.

Anna and Ethan escape to Vermont and locate the survivors' colony, where Anna hands over the cure. Before the credits roll, the ending scene in the movie depicts the survivors colony from a birds eye view. The scene is provided with a voice over with Anna implying that the survivors are Neville's legacy, as Neville became a legend for finding a cure.

Alternate ending

The tone of the film's ending was altered before the film's release, especially the stand-off between Neville and the infected in his laboratory. Visual effects supervisor Janek Sirrs recounts the original ending starting with the stand-off: "At that point, Neville's—and the audience's—assumptions about the nature of these creatures are shown to be incorrect. We see that they have actually retained some of their humanity. There is a very important moment between the Alpha Male and Neville. The Alpha Male slapped his hand on the glass and smeared it revealing a butterfly shaped imprint." Neville realizes that the Alpha Male is identifying the infected woman he was experimenting on by a butterfly tattoo, and that the Alpha Male wants her back. Demonstrating that he will cease fighting and return her, Neville is allowed to approach them, with the Alpha Male ordering the infected not to touch him. Neville brings the Alpha Female back to consciousness, still infected, due to him having removed the cure, and the Alpha Male embraces her; David Schaub stated, "Then, when Neville finally turns the Alpha Female over to the Alpha Male, there is this little love moment between the two of them." Neville and the Alpha Male then exchange stares; Neville apologizes to them, which the Alpha Male acknowledges before the infected leave. He then looks at the photos of the infected he has experimented on and killed, and he realizes that he is the monster of their legends: the infected think of him as someone who hunts down and kills their people. The original final shot follows Neville, Anna, and Ethan as they cross the remnants of the George Washington Bridge in hopes of finding other survivors, accompanied by a recording from Anna telling possible survivors that there is hope, and Neville knows the compounds of the cure, meaning he can recreate it and help humanity survive and rebuild, thus establishing his legend.

p/s : selamat menonton Transformers : Revenge Of The Fallen

Monday, June 15, 2009

International Style

International Style is a term often used to describe Bauhaus architecture in the United States. The name came from the book The International Style by historian and critic Henry-Russell Hitchcock and architect Philip Johnson. The book was published in 1932 in conjunction with an exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. The term is again used in a later book, International Architecture, by Walter Gropius.

While German Bauhaus architecture had been concerned with the social aspects of design, America's International Style became a symbolism of Capitalism: The International Style is the favored architecture for office buildings, and is also found in upscale homes built for the rich.

One of the most famous examples of the International Style is the United Nations Secretariat building, designed by the Bauhaus architect Le Corbusier. The smooth glass-sided slab dominates New York's skyline along the East River. The United Nations Secretariat building was completed in 1952.

Le Corbusier's United Nations Secretariat building over-looks the New York City skyline along the East River.

Wednesday, May 27, 2009

Frank Lloyd Wright : An Organic Architecture, 1939

Frank Lloyd Wright introduced the word ‘organic’ into his philosophy of architecture as early as 1908. It was an extension of the teachings of his mentor Louis Sullivan whose slogan “form follows function” became the mantra of modern architecture. Wright changed this phrase to “form and function are one,” using nature as the best example of this integration.

Although the word ‘organic’ in common usage refers to something which has the characteristics of animals or plants, Frank Lloyd Wright’s organic architecture takes on a new meaning. It is not a style of imitation, because he did not claim to be building forms which were representative of nature. Instead, organic architecture is a reinterpretation of nature’s principles as they had been filtered through the intelligent minds of men and women who could then build forms which are more natural than nature itself.

Organic architecture involves a respect for the properties of the materials—you don’t twist steel into a flower—and a respect for the harmonious relationship between the form/design and the function of the building (for example, Wright rejected the idea of making a bank look like a Greek temple). Organic architecture is also an attempt to integrate the spaces into a coherent whole: a marriage between the site and the structure and a union between the context and the structure.

Throughout his 70 year career, Frank Lloyd Wright published articles, gave lectures, and wrote many books. The philosophy of organic architecture was present consistently in his body of work and the scope of its meaning mirrored the development his architecture. The core of this ideology was always the belief that architecture has an inherent relationship with both its site and its time.

When asked in 1939 if there was a way to control a client’s potentially bad taste in selecting housing designs for his Broadacre City project, Wright replied, “Even if he wanted bad ones he could find only good ones because in an organic architecture, that is to say an architecture based upon organic ideals, bad design would be unthinkable.” In this way, the question of style was not important to Frank Lloyd Wright. A building was a product of its place and its time, intimately connected to a particular moment and site—never the result of an imposed style.

In 1957, two years before his death, Frank Lloyd Wright published the book, A Testament, which was a philosophical summation of his architectural career. In an essay entitled “The New Architecture: Principles”, he put forth nine principles of architecture that reflected the development of his organic philosophy. The principles addressed ideas about the relationship of the human scale to the landscape, the use of new materials like glass and steel to achieve more spatial architecture, and the development of a building’s architectural “character,” which was his answer to the notion of style.

Adakah anda tahu?

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2. bunyi (kuek) yang dihasilkan oleh itik tidak bergema dan beralun.
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mampu membunuh seekor anjing bersaiz kecil.

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yang telah diproses.

5. Pada tahun 1830, ketchup (sos tomato) digunakan sebagai ubatan dan
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11. Jika nombor 111,111,111 didarab 111,111,111 anda akan dpat jawapan

12. Warna biru adalah warna kesukaan 80 peratus rakyat Amerika.

13. Tanda (#) di keyboard komputer anda sebenarnya dinamakan 'octothorp'.

14. Adalah mustahil jika anda bersin tanpa memejamkan mata.

15. Seekor lipas boleh hidup selama 10 hari tanpa kepala.

16. Jika dikangkangkan kaki dan baring secara telentang, kita tidak akan
tenggelam di dalam pasir jerlus.

17. Nama yang paling banyak umumnya di dunia ini ialah Muhammad.

18. Di Eropah, kebanyakan wanita Eropah tidak memakai seluar dalam sehingga
ke tahun 1900 barulah seluar dalam diperkenalkan.

19. Produk pertama menggunakan bar code adalah Wrigley's gum.

20. Mexico Citytenggelam sedikit demi sedikit sekitar 10 inci setiap tahun.

21. Mengikut statik dalam kehidupan, ayam adalah haiwan yang paling banyak
di dunia mengalahkan manusia, kerana cara pembiakan yang berleluasa dan
senang dibiakkan untuk makanan.

22. Otak akan lebih aktif ketika tidur dari ketika anda menonton tv.

23. terdapat banyak telefon di WashingtonD.C mengalahkan penduduk

24. Untuk melepaskan dari gigitan buaya, anda perlu mencucuk matanya
menggunakan jari sekuat hati. Buaya akan melepas anda serta merta.

25. Jika sebutir kecil kismis dijatuhkan di dalam segelas champagne segar,
kismis tersebut akan turun ke dasar gelas dan naik semula dan turun kembali
dan seterusnya seakan dilambung-lambung.

26. Leonardo da Vinci juga mencipta gunting dan beliau menghabiskan 10
tahun untuk menyiapkan lukisan agungnya iaitu Monalisa(10 tahun untuk
bahagian bibirnya sahaja)

27. Nama sebenar rama-rama (butterfly) ialah 'flutterby'.

28. 90% dari pembaca yang membaca info ini kebanyakannya tidak tahu tentang
fakta yang telah diberikan. Keajaiban fakta fakta sebegini dapat menarik
minat pembaca untuk mengetahui dari atas kemusykilan minda kita sendiri.

29. Tahukah anda senarai ini tiada no 8.

30. Anda pasti menyemak kembali senarai ini sekali lagi untuk mengesahkan
tiada no 8. kan ? dan pasti ramai yang berhajat untuk checking tulisan pada
zip masing2?

Monday, April 13, 2009

Tuesday, March 24, 2009

title : bus 'tard'
location : tanjung rambutan bus station

i don't know untill when tanjung rambutan can have new modern bus. if i not mistake that bus still same since 60's years ago. damn!

Friday, March 20, 2009


Master of Heritage Conservation – M.Herit.Cons.
by Saiful Fazli Ramli Arch(UTM), B.Arch (Hons)UTM

1.0 Title

Physical Conservation to Malaysian Government’s Buildings of Heritage Architecture – A Methodology to Building Facility Management.

2.0 Synopsis of Research / Abstract

This research is aimed to evaluate the efficiency in physical conservation to Malaysian government’s buildings with heritage architecture. As the word “conservation” alone refers to guarding of an asset, it is undeniable that conservancy is important for the purpose of preserving a building’s historical values and local identity as well as a solution provider to government’s management of assets and facilities. For instance, the Government would be able to cut on high maintenance expenses without having to lose a building’s neither aesthetic nor historical values by conserving it.

There are two objectives of this research. The first objective is to identify the type of physical conservancy required while the second objective is to analyse the conservation efficiency in the aspect of design planning. This research will identify the main elements in determining the type of conservancy which would require understanding of:

i) its methodology, theory and historical values
ii) new design in old setting,
iii) planning procedure
iv) material conservation towards traditional buildings
v) conservation of finishes

A sample case study will be carried out by selecting several government’s buildings in Australia and Malaysia for the purpose of identifying the method for conservation of the buildings with heritage architecture. The case study will be conducted via literature review and coursework for core subject and elective offered by the university. In short, this research could deliver an idea to Building Facility Management which stresses on conserving the heritage architecture in a Malaysian Government’s building.

3.0 Mission of Research

To establish the desired number of expert professionals in the physical conservation for Malaysian government’s buildings of heritage architecture, in line with JKR Strategic Framework 2007-2010’s vision “To become a world-class service provider and centre of excellence in asset management, project management and engineering services for the development of nation’s infrastructure through creative and innovative human capital and state-of-the-art technology.”

4.0 Objective of Research

“Heritage Conservation is critical to job creation and poverty alleviation - A good heritage conservation strategy should be linked to the local economy, in order to create jobs and alleviate poverty - particularly in developing countries.”

The main objectives of this research are focused on :-
i)to identify the type of physical conservancy required for Malaysian government’s buildings of heritage architecture

ii)to analyse the conservation efficiency in the aspect of design planning, material and finishes.

5.0 Introduction

“Heritage Conservation is more than just history - A good heritage conservation strategy incorporates all aspects of a region's heritage - historical, but also natural and cultural. “

The exclusive architecture in the historical Sultan Abdul Samad Building (built in 1897), Kuala Lumpur Train Station (built in 1911) and other historical buildings in Malaysia are proof that Malaysia is rich with buildings of historical values.

Based from the inventory research on Malaysian Heritage Buildings conducted by the National Museum in 1992, there are more than 35,000 pre-colonial buildings in 265 town areas that should be conserved. As a matter of fact, rehabilitation of historical buildings is not an effort that is to be shouldered by the government alone. Instead, it should be a collective effort of each individual in the society as these buildings have invaluable aesthetic value and such exclusive architecture for inheritance of future generation.

The importance of conserving the heritage buildings (according to Ahmad, 1997, Fileden, 1997) are:

i)These buildings could have with them archaeological, economic, aesthetic, historical or nostalgic values.

ii)They can stand as an icon or identity to the township and local culture.

iii)The location of these buildings and the surrounding areas may attract the tourist, hence boosting the country’s tourism industry.

iv)Historical buildings may remind us of the pre-colonial days, thus they may invoke sense of patriotism.

In July 2007, the Ministry of Culture, Arts and Heritage of Malaysia had announced the 50 National Heritage Buildings among which are the government’s buildings, such as the Parliament House, National Palace, the Sultan Abdul Samad Buidling, The Cityhall complex, National KTM Train Station, the Kuala Lumpur General Post Office, the Public Works Department, Residency Building Jalan Dato’ Onn, National Mosque, the National Monument and Carcosa Seri Negara.

With this announcement, it is a government’s call to provide the expertise in conserving these buildings in order to ensure each of the building’s identity, historical and architectural values are protected for future generation.

5.1 Definition of Conservation

The Oxford-Fajar (2004:79) Dictionary defines conservation as preservation of the natural form or environment. Burden (2004:62) defines conservation as building management for the purpose of avoiding decay, total loss, abuse or from being abandoned. Burden also opines that building management involves recording of its history and past conservancy approach. Fielden ( (1994:3) opines that conservation is an action taken to avoid decay and it has to consider all actions that can extend the lifespan of cultural heritage and environment in order to impress those who view or use the particular building, of its artistic value. For example, the Conservation Project of the Dutch Era Shophouses located at No. 8 of Heeren Street at Melaka Heritage Zone by the Malaysian Conservation Board. The conservation work was carried out on 3 August 2001 and completed on 21 March 2005. This building double-storey shophouse has been successfully conserved while maintaining its original architectural design which proves that old buildings are conservable to lengthen its lifespan and functioning necessities. (Malaysian Conservation Board, 2006a).

6.0 Scope of Research

This scope of research will focus on one of the core agenda, i.e. asset facility management which has been the main target in JKR Strategic Frameworks 2007-2010. The asset facility management is aimed for public buildings such as government offices, schools, army camps and police stations. This research will also focus on the physical conservation efficiency of government’s historical buildings.

This research will focus on government’s buildings and case study on Australian government’s buildings.

This research is proposed to be conducted in Australia as the first choice and the United Kingdom as the second, and the discovery of the research would be used as a model to building conservation efficiency. Also, it is hoped that this research could further develop the scope of expertise in asset facility management, in line with JKR Strategic Framework 2007-2010.

7.0 Research Methodology

The methodology of this research is based on 3 main aspects:

i)Past literature reviews of this research. The literature review is also conducted on the core and the practice of maintenance management carried out at the public sector.

ii)Case study of more modern government buildings and consistent conservation as a model to townplanning which maintains conservation efforts while preserving the cultural, economic and architectural values.

iii)Understanding the lectures in the subjects offered at the university, which would be methodology of conservation, conservation in the theory and history aspect, new design in the old setting, planning procedure, material conservation of traditional buildings and conservation of finishes.
Generally, the flow of this research is made up of several level of implementation, as per the sequence:-

i) Determining the title and objective of the research
ii) Constructing the research methodology
iii) Data analysis and discovery
iv) Conclusion and proposal

8.0 Justification And Significance of Research

“A good heritage conservation strategy should also have well-being and human security as some of its eventual goals for the local community.”

Generally, the government buildings and facilities in the public sector are government office premises, hospitals, schools, army camps, police stations, universities, sports complexes and etc. These premises require proper maintenance method to ensure the functionality of each of these buildings won’t be disrupted.
The Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia had given his view that the maintenance of public facilities is not up to satisfactory level. He opined that Malaysia has the “first world infrastructure but third world mentality”. In fact, the government would be seen as wasting the nation’s money for providing the most advanced infrastructure but fails to also provide proper maintenance.
Unsatisfactory maintenance will cost the government more money for rectification and inconvenience to the public, as well as causing negative presumption of the foreign investors and tourists towards the facilities maintenance of the country. (Misnistry of Housing and Local Government, 2003).

Government buildings and facilities are the nation’s assets that must be well managed. Failing to provide good maintenance to the government offices will give an impact in government’s efficiency in managing the country. Thus, it is important for all to stress on efficient facility maintenance management in the public sector as to ensure a more quality life for all.

This research is imperative as the Public Works Department had stressed in its Strategic Framework 2007-2010 on the moving forward plan to be a world-class provider and centre of excellence in asset management, project management and engineering services for the development of nation’s infrastructure.

The Strategic Framework has been implemented by having professionals in various expertise to fulfil the competency required such as asset management, as contained in the human capital competency development strategy plan. To better enhance this strategy plan, this research is aimed towards a more specific conservation which involves a tremendous architecture discipline that is still lacking in Public Works Department and even, the country. In short, specification in conservation is significant to establish the desired number of expert professionals and it is part of physical facility asset management involving the government’s heritage buildings.

It is also hoped that this research could propose for a policy or bill of conservation towards government heritage buildings be enforced. This is to preserve the building’s aesthetic values, sense of culture and identity as well as to avoid higher spending on rectification in future.

9.0 Rujukan

JKR Strategic Frameworks 2007-2010

Pekeliling Am Bil. 1 Tahun 2003
Arahan Penyelenggaraan Bangunan Kerajaan Di Putrajaya

Ucapan oleh Ketua Pengarah Kerja Raya Malaysia,September 2006., September 2006.

ICOMOS (2002). Conservation Guidelines for Building Surveyors. Australia ICOMOS, Victoria.

Hawkins, J.M. (2004). Kamus Dwibahasa Oxford-Fajar. Penerbit Fajar Bakti, Selangor.

Fielden, B.M. (1994). Conservation of Historic Buildings. Architectural Press, Oxford.

Idid, S.Z. (1995). Pemeliharaan Warisan Rupa Bandar. Badan Warisan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.

Building Conservation Site by Dr. A. Ghafar Ahmad

Tuesday, March 17, 2009

Master of Heritage Conservation – M.Herit.Cons.

edisi versi bahasa melayu

1.0 Tajuk

Pendekatan Dalam Pengurusan Fasiliti Bangunan Dari Segi Pemuliharaan Fizikal Senibina Warisan Bangunan Kerajaan Di Malaysia.

2.0 Sinopsis Kajian / Abstrak

Kajian ini bertujuan untuk melihat tahap keberkesanan dalam pemuliharaan fizikal senibina warisan bangunan kerajaan yang sediaada di Malaysia. Penekanan terhadap pemuliharaan warisan bangunan kerajaan adalah penting bagi mengekalkan nilai-nilai sejarah, identiti tempatan dan bijak menguruskan aset fasiliti fizikal kerajaan yang amat berharga. Ianya penting supaya tidak melibatkan peruntukkan kewangan yang banyak untuk diselenggara dan secara tidak langsung masih mengekalkan nilai-nilai estetik sejarah dan aspek rupabentuk senibina dan fizikalnya. Objektif pertama kajian ini adalah mengenalpasti pemuliharaan fizikal senibina warisan terhadap bangunan kerajaan. Manakala objektif kedua adalah mengkaji keberkesanan pemuliharaan fizikal senibina warisan bangunan kerajaan dari segi aspek perancangan rekabentuk pengkajian ini mengenalpasti parameter-parameter dan elemen-elemen utama untuk mengenalpasti jenis pemuliharaan seperti metodologi terhadap pemuliharaan, pemuliharaan dari segi teori dan sejarah, rebentuk baru di dalam pengukuran lama (old setting), prosedur perancangan, pemuliharaan material terhadap bangunan traditional dan pemuliharaan terhadap kemasan. Pengumpulan sampel melalui kajian kes juga dilakukan dengan memilih beberapa bangunan kerajaan di Australia dan Malaysia sebagai model/sampel bagi mengenalpasti kaedah pemuliharaan warisan bangunan kerajaan. Semua kajian ini diperolehi melalui kajian literatur dan kerja khusus di dalam kelas bagi subjek (core study) dan elektif yang disediakan oleh pihak universiti. Secara rumusan kajian ini dapat memberi satu cadangan dalam pendekatan pengurusan fasiliti bangunan yang memberi khusus kepada pemuliharaan fizikal senibina warisan bangunan-bangunan kerajaan di Malaysia.

3.0 Misi Kajian

Menyediakan perkhidmatan pakar yang lebih spesifik iaitu pemuliharaan fizikal senibina warisan bangunan-bangunan kerajaan yang bertaraf antarabangsa seiring dengan dasar Rangka Strategi JKR 2007-2010 (JKR Strategic Framework 2007-2010) yang ingin menjadikan JKR sebagai pusat kecemerlangan dalam pengurusan aset, pengurusan projek dan kemudahan kejuruteraan bagi pembangunan infrastuktur negara melalui kreativiti dan inovasi.

4.0 Objektif Kajian

“Heritage Conservation is critical to job creation and poverty alleviation - A good heritage conservation strategy should be linked to the local economy, in order to create jobs and alleviate poverty - particularly in developing countries.”

Objektif utama kajian ini adalah difokuskan kepada dua perkara iaitu:

1.Mengenalpasti pemuliharaan fizikal senibina warisan bangunan yang bersejarah khususnya bagi fasiliti awam iaitu bangunan kerajaan di Malaysia.

2.Mengkaji keberkesanan pemuliharaan fizikal senibina warisan bangunan kerajaan dari segi aspek perancangan rekabentuk senibina, material dan kemasan.

5.0 Pengenalan

“Heritage Conservation is more than just history - A good heritage conservation strategy incorporates all aspects of a region's heritage - historical, but also natural and cultural. “

Keunikan Senibina bangunan bersejarah seperti Bangunan Abdul Samad (1897) dan Stesen Keretapi (1911) di Kuala Lumpur serta bangunan-bangunan bersejarah lain di seluruh negara menampakkan bahawa negara kita Malaysia amat kaya dengan peninggalan bangunan bersejarah yang tidak ternilai harganya. Merujuk kepada hasil kajian Inventori Bangunan-bangunan Warisan Malaysia yang telah dilakukan oleh Muzium Negara pada tahun 1992 tedapat lebih daripada 35,000 bangunan sebelum perang di dalam 265 buah bandar yang dikaji di seluruh negara wajar dipulihara. Kesedaran mengenai kepentingan memulihara bangunan bersejarah adalah merupakan satu tanggungjawab yang harus dipikul oleh setiap individu dalam masyarakat. Ini adalah kerana bangunan bersejarah memiliki elemen estetik dan ciri senibina yang unik serta harus diwarisi hingga ke generasi yang akan datang. Jesteru itu, usaha pemuliharaan bangunan bersejarah perlu dilakukan agar generasi akan datang berpeluang untuk melihat dan menikmatinya. Menurut pendapat (Ahmad, 1997; Fileden, 1997), antara kepentingan pemuliharaan bangunan bersejarah ialah:

1.Bangunan bersejarah mempunyai nilai nostalgia, senibina, estetik, sejarah, dokumentari arkeologi, ekonomik, sosial dan juga politik serta rohani.

2.Bangunan bersejarah berupaya memberi imej dan identiti pada rupabentuk bandar dan budaya setempat.

3.Lokasi dan kawasan persekitaran bangunan bersejarah berupaya untuk menarik minat para pelancong seterusnya menyumbang kepada pembangunan industri pelancongan.

4.Bangunan bersejarah sedikit sebanyak akan mengingatkan kita kepada sejarah penjajahan masa lampau seterusnya memberi iktibar kepada generasi akan datang tentang sejarah silam tanahair serta meningkatkan semangat patriotisma.

Di dalam konteks kajian kes ini, mengikut Senarai 50 Warisan Kebangsaan yang dilakukan oleh Kementerian Kebudayaan, Kesenian dan Warisan Malaysia; Julai 2007 menyenaraikan antara bangunan kerajaan yang diwartakan warisan adalah Bangunan Parlimen, Istana Negara, Bangunan Sultan Abdul Samad, Bangunan Dewan Bandaraya dan Panggung Dewan Bandaraya, Bangunan Stesen Keretapi Tanah Melayu, Bangunan Pejabat Pos Besar Kuala Lumpur, Bangunan Jabatan Kerja Raya, Residency Building Jalan Dato’ Onn, Masjid Negara dan Makam Pahlawan dan Carcosa Sri Negara.

Oleh yang demikian menjadi tanggungjawab untuk kita sebagai sektor kerajaan sebagai penyedia kepada kemudahan pakar dalam aspek pemuliharaan supaya ianya terpelihara dan dijaga dengan baiknya supaya identiti, sejarah dan nilai-nilai senibinanya dapat dipertahan sehingga generasi akan datang.

5.1 Definisi Pemuliharaan (Conservation)

Kamus Oxford-Fajar (2004:79) mendefinisikan pemuliharaan sebagai kerja memulihara dalam bentuk yang sedia wujud. Burden (2004:62) mendefinisikan pemuliharaan sebagai pengurusan bangunan untuk mengelakkan kereputan, kemusnahan, penyalahgunaan atau diabaikan, dan ia merangkumi perekodan sejarah bangunan dan pendekatan pemuliharaan yang telah dijalankan sebelumnya. Fielden (1994:3) pula berpendapat bahawa pemuliharaan ialah tindakan untuk mengelakkan kereputan. Ia perlu mengambilkira semua perilaku atau perbuatan yang boleh memanjangkan usia warisan budaya dan semulajadi bagi membolehkan sesuatu objek itu dipersembahkan kepada mereka yang mengguna dan melihat bangunan bersejarah itu agar berasa kagum terhadap nilai artistiknya. Contoh pendekatan pemuliharaan ialah seperti pada Projek Pemuliharaan Rumah Kedai Era Belanda yang terletak di No. 8, Heeren Street, di Zon Warisan Melaka oleh Badan Warisan Malaysia. Kerja pemuliharaan yang bermula pada 3hb. Ogos 2001 ini telah siap pada 21hb. Mac 2005. Bangunan rumah kedai dua tingkat ini telah berjaya dipulihara dengan mengekalkan ciri-ciri rekabentuk senibinanya yang asli sebagai bukti bahawa bangunan lama boleh dipulihara ke satu tahap yang tinggi seterusnya memanjangkan lagi usia dan keperluan fungsinya. (Badan Warisan Malaysia, 2006a).

6.0 Skop Kajian

Skop kajian ini akan memberi tumpuan kepada salah satu agenda dasar iaitu di dalam pengurusan aset fasiliti yang menjadi salah satu teras dalam rangka kerja JKR Strategic Frameworks 2007-2010. Sebagai contohnya bangunan di sektor awam iaitu premis-premis dan bangunan-bangunan kerajaan seperti pejabat-pejabat kerajaan, sekolah, kem tentera, balai polis dan sebagainya. Kajian ini juga akan menumpukan kepada keberkesanan pemulihan fizikal senibina bangunan bersejarah kerajaan

Kajian ini akan memfokuskan hanya kepada bangunan kerajaan serta kajian kes yang dilakukan terhadap bangunan kerajaan di Australia.

Walaupun kajian ini dicadangan dibuat di negara Australia sebagai pilihan pertama dan United Kingdom sebagai pilihan kedua kerana adalah dijangkakan hasil penemuan kajian ini boleh dijadikan model kepada tahap keberkesanan pemuliharaan bangunan yang menjadi salah satu skop kepakaran yang lebih spesifik dalam senibina terhadap salah satu dasar Rangka Strategi JKR 2007-2010 iaitu dalam pengurusan aset fasiliti.
7.0 Metodologi Kajian

Metodologi kajian ini adalah berdasarkan kepada tiga kaedah utama iaitu:

1.Tinjauan penulisan kajian literatur (literature review) yang lepas mengenai kajian. Kajian literatur juga dibuat terhadap dasar dan amalan pengurusan penyenggaraan yang dilaksanakan di sektor awam.

2.Kajian kes bangunan-bangunan kerajaan yang lebih maju dan tahap pemuliharaan yang konsisten sebagai model kepada pembentukan rupabandar yang mengekalkan pemuliharaan bangunan yang maksimum tanpa menjejaskan budaya, ekonomi dan nilai-nilai senibina.

3.Pemahaman pembelajaran dalam subjek yang diperkenalkan oleh univeriti iaitu metodologi terhadap pemuliharaan, pemuliharaan dari segi teori dan sejarah, rebentuk baru di dalam pengukuran lama (old setting), prosedur perancangan, pemuliharaan material terhadap bangunan traditional dan pemuliharaan terhadap kemasan.

Aliran proses kajian ini secara umumnya mempunyai beberapa peringkat pelaksanaan yang utama iaitu:

a. Peringkat pemilihan tajuk dan penetapan objektif kajian.
b. Peringkat merangka metodologi kajian.
c. Peringkat analisis data dan penemuan
d. Peringkat rumusan dan cadangan.

8.0 Justifikasi Dan Kepentingan Kajian

“A good heritage conservation strategy should also have well-being and human security as some of its eventual goals for the local community.”

Secara amnya bangunan-bangunan kerajaan dan fasiliti fizikal yang terdapat di sektor awam di Malaysia adalah terdiri daripada premis-premis pejabat-pejabat kerajaan, hospital, sekolah, kem tentera, balai polis, universiti, kompleks sukan dan sebagainya. Premis-premis dan bangunan-bangunan kerajaan ini hendaklah perlu diselenggara dengan cara yang terbaik supaya fungsi setiap jabatan tidak terjejas.

Seperti yang kita sedia maklum, Y.A.B Timbalan Perdana Menteri turut membangkitkan tentang masalah penyenggaraan terhadap kemudahan kemudahan awam yang lemah dan tidak memuaskan. Dalam hal ini beliau telah menegaskan bahawa negara kita mempunyai “first world infrastructure but third world mentality”. Dengan sendirinya kenyataan beliau ini mencerminkan bahawa masalah penyenggaraan bukan sahaja membebankan Kerajaan dan pengguna malah ia turut menimbulkan tanggapan negatif di kalangan warga asing yang terdiri dari pelabur-pelabur dan pelancong dari luar negara, terhadap budaya penyenggaraan kemudahan awam di negara ini (Menteri Perumahan dan Kerajaan Tempatan, 2003)

Bangunan kerajaan dan fasilitinya adalah aset Negara yang perlu dititik beratkan dan diurus dengan sempurna. Kegagalan penyenggaraan bangunan Kerajaan boleh memberi kesan negatif kepada rakyat terhadap keberkesanan kerajaan dalam mengurus negara. Amat penting semua pihak menekankan keberkesanan Pengurusan penyenggaraan fasiliti di sektor awam bagi menjamin kehidupan rakyat yang sempurna dan berkualiti.

Kajian ini juga penting kerana pada masa kini Jabatan Kerja Raya telah mengeluarkan satu dasar iaitu JKR Strategic Framework 2007-2010 mengenai halatuju jabatan sebagai penyedia kepada kemudahan kejuruteraan yang bertaraf antarabangsa dan menjadikan jabatan sebagai pusat kecemerlangan di dalam pengurusan aset, pengurusan projek dan kemudahan kejuruteraan bagi pembangunan infrastruktur di negara ini.

Dengan wujudnya rangka strategik tersebut, dan pelaksanaannya telah pun dijalankan. Pelaksanaan yang telah dilakukan dengan mewujudkan bilangan ahli profesional dalam pelbagai bidang untuk memenuhi kompetensi yang diperlukan seperti contoh pengurusan aset yang terkandung di dalam pelan strategi pembangunan kompentensi modul insan.

Dari pengwujudan rangka strategi tersebut bilangan pegawai profesional yang telah dihantar bagi memenuhi tahap kompentensi tersebut telah dilakukan oleh yang demikian sebagai cadangan penambahbaikan dalam rangka strategi ini kajian ini lebih kepada pengkhususan (spesifik) kepada aspek pemuliharaan yang melibatkan bidang senibina yang begitu penting dan masih kurang di jabatan mahupun negara ini. Dengan erti kata lain pengkhususan subjek pemuliharaan ini adalah penting dalam menghasilkan profesional yang pakar dan merupakan salah satu cabang yang perlu ada dalam pengurusan aset fasiliti fizikal bangunan dalam konteks ini melibatkan bangunan warisan milik kerajaan.

Dengan kajian ini juga satu cadangan polisi dan undang-undang yang berkaitan pemuliharaan terhadap bangunan kerajaan bersejarah dapat dikuatkuasakan bagi menjaga nilai-nilai estetik value, perancangan yang betul tanpa menjejaskan imej asal, budaya setempat (sences of identity) dan pembaziran wang pada masa hadapan.

9.0 Rujukan

JKR Strategic Frameworks 2007-2010

Pekeliling Am Bil. 1 Tahun 2003
Arahan Penyelenggaraan Bangunan Kerajaan Di Putrajaya

Ucapan oleh Ketua Pengarah Kerja Raya Malaysia,September 2006., September 2006.

ICOMOS (2002). Conservation Guidelines for Building Surveyors. Australia ICOMOS, Victoria.

Hawkins, J.M. (2004). Kamus Dwibahasa Oxford-Fajar. Penerbit Fajar Bakti, Selangor.

Fielden, B.M. (1994). Conservation of Historic Buildings. Architectural Press, Oxford.

Idid, S.Z. (1995). Pemeliharaan Warisan Rupa Bandar. Badan Warisan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.

Building Conservation Site by Dr. A. Ghafar Ahmad

Wednesday, March 11, 2009

Title : Heritage Conservation
Location : Kellie Castle, Ipoh, Malaysia


Actually sorry for the long time didn't updated for this blog. I'm really busy because to prepared for my thesis proposal where due on this 20 March. My thesis actually related to building conservation. For planning i'm proposed to study at University of Sdyney on 2010 in Master of Heritage Conservation. So far if any person who have opinion, information related to my study.... or suggestion can e-mail to me or write down your comment here regarding about heritage conservation. My interview maybe around the middle of this April. Thank You!

Friday, February 27, 2009

Title : Morish Architecture
Location : Kuala Lumpur

Title : Chinatown. Living in Petaling Street
Location : Kuala Lumpur

Thursday, February 26, 2009

Title : Chow Kit
Location : Chow Kit Market